Kimata, H. (2003). Listening to mozart reduces allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production in atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy. Behavioral Medicine, 29, 15-19.

METHODS: Atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy listened to Mozart and Beethoven. RESULTS: Listening to Mozart reduced skin wheal responses also decreased in vitro total IgE with concomitant skewing of the cytokine pattern toward the Th1 type, that is, an increase in Th1 cytokine production and decrease in Th2 cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.


Yang, C.Y., Chen, C.H., Chu, H., Chen, W.C., Lee, T.Y., Chen, S.G., & Chou, K.R. (2011). The effect of music therapy on hospitalized psychiatric patients' anxiety, finger temperature and electroencephalography: a randomized clinical trial. Biological Research for Nursing, [Epub ahead of print].

METHODS: Hospitalized psychiatric patients were randomly assigned to a music or a control group. The experimental group received music therapy for 30 minutes each morning for 11 days. The Beck Anxiety Inventory was given and skin temperature and brain waves were monitored before, during, and after music therapy. RESULTS: The music group participants had lower scores on the BAI than control participants, after the music therapy and at 1-week follow-up. The music group had increased alpha EEG percentage and a decreased beta EEG percentage after the music therapy, suggesting greater relaxation.

Korhan, E.A., Khorshid, L., & Uyar, M. (2011).The effect of music therapy on physiological signs of anxiety in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20, 7-8.

METHODS: Intensive care unit patients were randomized to a control group or a group who received 60 minutes of classical music. Physiological signs were taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th, 60th and 90th minutes of the intervention. RESULTS: The music group had significantly lower respiratory rates, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the control group. This decrease improved progressively in the 30th, 60th and 90th minutes of the intervention, indicating a cumulative dose effect.

Cooke, M., Chaboyer, W., Schluter, P. & Hiratos, M. (2005). The effect of music on preoperative anxiety in day surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 47-55.

METHODS: A randomized controlled trial design was conducted to assess anxiety before and after listening to patient preferred music. RESULTS: Music reduced anxiety.

Haun, M., Mainous, R.O. & Looney, S.W. (2001). Effect of music on anxiety of women awaiting breast biopsy. Behavioral Medicine, 27, 127-132.

METHODS: this study investigated the effect of music on the state anxiety of a sample of 20 patients awaiting breast biopsy. The experimental group was given a 20-minute music-based intervention in a preoperative holding area. RESULTS: Posttest state anxiety and respiratory rates of the patients in the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the patients in the control group.

Hernandez-Ruiz, E. (2005). Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 140-158.

METHODS: Twenty-eight women residing in two domestic violence shelters in a Midwestern city met with the researcher on five consecutive days for half-hour sessions. The dependent variables included: state anxiety measured by the STAI on the first and last sessions, and levels of fatigue as measured by the Fatigue Scale at waking time. The independent variable was a 20-minute recording of participant-selected music with a Progressive Muscle Relaxation script. RESULTS: Music therapy reduced anxiety levels and improved sleep quality for the experimental group.

Holm, L. & Fitzmaurice, L. (2008). Emergency department waiting room stress: can music or aromatherapy improve anxiety scores? Pediatric Emergency Care, 24, 836-838.

METHODS: Adults accompanying children to the emergency department were assigned to no intervention, music, aromatherapy, and both music and aromatherapy. RESULTS: Anxiety levels decreased on those days when music was playing.

Lee, O. K., Chung, Y. F., & Chan, W. M. (2005). Music and its effect on the physiological responses and anxiety levels of patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14, 609-620.

METHODS: Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to either 30 minutes of music or a rest period. The subjects were asked to answer the State Trait Anxiety Inventory scale before and after the study period and physiological indices and resting behaviors were recorded before and after the study period in both groups. The subjects’ satisfaction with music was also obtained after music intervention. RESULTS: The findings indicate that patients on mechanical ventilation that listened to a single 30-minute session of music showed greater relaxation as manifested by a decrease in physiological indices and increase in comfortable resting behaviors.

Yang, M., Li, L., Zhu, H., Alexander, I.M., Liu, S., Zhou, W., & Ren, X. (2009). Music therapy to relieve anxiety in pregnant women on bedrest: a randomized, controlled trial. The American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing, 34, 316-323.

METHODS: Pregnant women received music therapy for 30 minutes on 3 consecutive days. Usual care participants had a 30-minute rest on 3 consecutive days. RESULTS: Anxiety levels decreased and physiological responses (vital signs, fetal heart rate) improved in the music group.



Katagiri, J. (2009). The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 46, 15-31.

METHODS: Students (mean age 11.5 years) with autism were taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. RESULTS: The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding.

Kim, J., Wigram, T., & Gold, C. (2009). Emotional, motivational and interpersonal responsiveness of children with autism in improvisational music therapy. Autism, 13, 389-409.


METHODS: Children with autism were randomly assigned to improvisational music therapy and toy play sessions. RESULTS: Improvisational music therapy produced markedly more and longer events of 'joy', 'emotional synchronicity' and 'initiation of engagement' behaviours in the children than toy play sessions. In  response to the therapist interpersonal demands, 'compliant (positive) responses' were observed more in music therapy than in toy play sessions, and 'no responses' were twice as frequent in toy play sessions as in music therapy.

Blood Pressure

Chafin, S., Roy, M., Gerin, W. & Christenfeld N. (2004). Music can facilitate blood pressure recovery from stress. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 393-403.

METHODS: Participants performed a challenging three-minute mental arithmetic task and then were assigned randomly to sit in silence or to listen to one of several styles of music: classical, jazz or pop. RESULTS: Participants who listened to classical music had significantly lower post-task systolic blood pressure levels than did participants who heard no music.

Jeon, E.Y., Kim, S.Y., & Yoo, H.S. (2009). Effects of music therapy and rhythmic exercise on quality of life, bloodpressure and upper extremity muscle strength in institution-dwelling elderly women. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 39, 829-839.


METHODS: 18 elders received music therapy and rhythmic exercise. RESULTS: Music therapy and rhythmic exercise had positive effects on quality of life, especially on vitality, general health, mental health, blood pressure and upper extremity muscle strength.

Brain Injury


Guétin, S., Soua, B., Voiriot, G., Picot, M.C., & Hérisson, C. (2009). The effect of music therapy on mood and anxiety-depression: An observational study in institutionalized patients with traumatic brain injury. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 52, 30-40.


METHODS: Patients with traumatic brain injury took part in individual, weekly, 1-hour music therapy sessions over a period of 20 weeks. Each session was divided into two 30-minute periods - one devoted to listening to music (receptive music therapy) and the other to playing an instrument (active music therapy). RESULTS: Music therapy improved mood, from the first session onwards. This short-term effect was confirmed by the immediate changes in the scores after music therapy sessions. Music therapy also led to a reduced anxiety and depression from week 10 until the end of the study (week 20).

Breast Feeding

Vianna, M.N., Barbosam A,P., Carvalhaes, A.S., & Cunha, A.J. (2011). Music therapy may increase breastfeeding rates among mothers of premature newborns: a randomized controlled trial. Jornal de Pediatria, 1, 87.

METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, mothers of premature neonates participated in music therapy or a control group. The music therapy sessions were three times a week for 60 minutes. The endpoints were breastfeeding rates at the moment of infant hospital discharge and at follow-up visits (7-15 days, 30 and 60 days after discharge). RESULTS: Breastfeeding was more frequent in the music therapy group at discharge and at the follow-up visits.


Li, X.M., Yan, H., Zhou, K.N., Dang, S.N., Wang, D.L., & Zhang, Y.P. (2011). Effects of music therapy on pain among female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results from a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Research Treatment, [Epub ahead of print].

METHODS: Breast cancer patients following a mastectomy were randomly assigned to a music or a control group. The intervention group received music therapy from the day after mastectomy to the third admission to hospital for chemotherapy in addition to the routine nursing care, while the control group received only routine nursing care. Pain scores were measured at baseline and at three post-tests. RESULTS: Music therapy reduced the pain scores.

Lin, M.F., Hsieh, Y.J., Hsu, Y.Y., Fetzer, S., & Hsu, M.C. (2011). A randomised controlled trial of the effect of music therapy and verbal relaxation on chemotherapy-induced anxiety. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20, 988-999.

METHODS: Chemotherapy patients were randomized into three groups. The music therapy group received a single, one-hour music session, the verbal relaxation group received 30 minutes of guided relaxation and the control group received usual care. RESULTS: Music therapy had a more positive effect on postchemotherapy anxiety than verbal relaxation and a greater increase in skin temperature. Patients with high anxiety had a greater decrease in postchemotherapy anxiety following music therapy than a normal anxiety subsample.

Burns, D. S., Sledge, R. B., Fuller, L. A., Daggy, J. K., Monahan, P. O. (2005). Cancer patients’ interest and preferences for music therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 42, 185-199.

METHODS: The goal of this study was to examine cancer patients’ interest in and preferences for using two types of music therapy interventions, music-making and music listening. Sixty-five patients completed the Music Interest Survey in addition to standardized measures of coping, affect, anxiety, and fatigue. RESULTS: Results suggest adult cancer patients are interested in music therapy, especially music listening. Patient interest and preference were associated with negative affect, anxiety, age, and self-efficacy. Findings highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of patient needs and preferences prior to intervention.


Argstatter, H., Haberbosch, W. & Bolay, H. (2006). Study of the effectiveness of musical stimulation during intracardiac catheterization. Clinical Research Cardiology, 95, 514-522.

METHODS: patients waiting for a scheduled cardiac catheterization were randomly allocated to one of three groups: control group (standard care), exposure group (music stimulation during the procedure), or coaching group (additional music therapeutic coaching). Target variables were anxiety and physiological parameters. RESULTS: Music intervention reduced anxiety (STAI-S reduction pre-post: exposure 11 pt, coaching: 4 pt, control: 6). Physiological values and medication did not differ between the groups.

Sendelbach, S., Halm, M., Doran, K., Miller, E.H. & Gaillard, P. (2006). Effects of music therapy on physiological and psychological outcomes for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 81, 205-206.

METHODS: 50 patients received 20 minutes of music (intervention), whereas 36 patients had 20 minutes of rest in bed (control). Anxiety, pain, physiologic parameters, and opioid consumption were measured before and after the 20-minute period. RESULTS: A significant reduction in anxiety and pain was demonstrated in the group that received music compared with the control group, but no difference was observed in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate. There was no reduction in opioid usage in the 2 groups.





Sussman, J.E. (2009). The effect of music on peer awareness in preschool age children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Music Therapy, 46, 53-68.


METHODS: Nine children with a developmental disability participated in the study. Each participant completed 4 small group sessions with the researcher and 2 other research participants. During each session, the children participated in activities targeting peer awareness that incorporated musical and play elements. Behavioral data were recorded representing the children's sustained and alternating attention towards peers. RESULTS: Children sustained attention towards peers for the longest durations and alternated attention from peer to peer at the highest frequencies during activities that utilized a musical.


Ovayolu, N., Ucan, O., Pehlivan, S., Pehlivan, Y., Buyukhatipoglu, H., Savas, M. & Gulsen, M. (2006). Listening to Turkish classical music decreases patients' anxiety, pain, dissatisfaction and the dose of sedative and analgesic drugs during colonoscopy: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Clinical Research Cardiology, 95, 511-513.

METHODS: Patients undergoing elective colonoscopy were randomized into either listening to music or not listening to music. Anxiolytic and analgesic drugs were given according to the patients' demand. Medications were monitored and their levels of anxiety were determined using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Patients' satisfaction, pain, and willingness to undergo a repeated procedure were assessed using a visual analog scale. RESULTS: The mean dose of sedative and analgesic drugs used in group 1 smaller as compared to group 2 was the anxiety level was lower the satisfaction score was higher and the pain score was lower.

Tam, W.W., Wong, E.L., & Twinn, S.F. (2008). Effect of music on procedure time and sedation during colonoscopy: A meta-analysis. World journal of Gastroenterology, 14, 5336-5343.

METHODS: An electronic search in various databases was performed to identify related articles. RESULTS: Listening to music was effective in reducing procedure time and amount of sedation during colonoscopy.


Van de Winckel, A., Feys, H., De Weerdt, W. & Dom, R. (2004). Cognitive and behavioural effects of music-based exercises in patients with dementia. Clinical Rehabilitation, 18, 253-260.

METHOD: Fifteen patients attended exercise training for three months, which consisted of daily physical exercises supported by music for 30 min/session. They were compared with a group of 10 control patients, who received an equal amount of attention through daily conversation. The effect on cognition was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination RESULTS: The exercise group showed a significant improvement in cognition.


Uedo, N., Ishikawa, H., Morimoto, K., Ishihara, R., Narahara, H., Akedo, I., Ioka, T., Kaji, I. & Fukuda, S. (2004). Reduction in salivary cortisol level by music therapy during colonoscopic examination. Hepatogastroenterology, 51, 451-453.

METHOD: The subjects were 29 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy while listening to music or while not listening to music. RESULTS: Patients who listened to music during colonoscopy tended to have lower pain scores. Salivary cortisol levels increased significantly less in the group receiving music.



Chang, F.Y., Huang, H.C., Lin, K.C., & Lin, L.C. (2010). The effect of a music programme during lunchtime on the problem behaviour of the older residents with dementia at an institution in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 939-948.


METHODS: For eight weeks, residents with dementia were exposed to background music when they had lunch. RESULTS: The music programme reduced physical and verbal aggressive behaviour among the older residents with dementia. 

Guétin, S., Portet, F., Picot, M.C., Pommié, C., Messaoudi, M., Djabelkir, L., Olsen, A.L., Cano, M.M., Lecourt, E., Touchon, J. (2009). Effect of music therapy on anxiety and depression in patients with Alzheimer's type dementia: Randomised, controlled study. Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 28, 36-46.

METHODS: Individuals with Alzheimer’s participated in weekly sessions of individual, receptive music therapy. The musical style of the session was chosen by the patient. The control group (n = 15) participated under the same conditions in reading sessions. RESULTS: Significant reductions in anxiety and depression were observed in the music therapy group from week 4 and until week 16. The effect of music therapy was sustained for up to 8 weeks after the end of the treatment period.


Park, H. & Pringle- Specht, J.K. (2009). Effect of individualized music on agitation in individuals with dementia who live at home.Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 35, 47-55.

METHODS: Individuals with dementia, listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes prior to peak agitation time, two times per week for 2 weeks, followed by no music intervention for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. RESULTS:  Agitation levels were lower while listening to music.

Wall, M., & Duffy, A. (2010). The effects of music therapy for older people with dementia. British Journal of Nursing, 19, 108-113.

METHODS: Online databases CINAHL, PsycINFO and MEDLINE were reviewed. RESULTS: The majority of studies reported that music therapy influenced the behaviour of people with dementia in a positive way by reducing agitation and improving participants' mood and socialization skills.



Erkkilä, J., Punkanen, M., Fachner, J., Ala-Ruonam, E., Pöntiö, I., Tervaniemi, M., Vanhala, M., & Gold, C. (2011). Individual music therapy for depression: randomized controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, [Epub ahead of print].

METHODS: Depressed patients were randomized to receive individual music therapy plus standard care (20 bi-weekly sessions) or standard care only, and followed up at baseline, at 3 months (after intervention) and at 6 months. Clinical measures included depression, anxiety, general functioning, quality of life and alexithymia. RESULTS: The music group showed greater improvement on depression, anxiety and general functioning at the 3-month follow-up.


Chan, M.F., Chan, E.A., Mok, E., Kwan Tse, F.Y. (2009). Effect of music on depression levels and physiological responses in community-based older adults. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18, 285-294.

METHODS:  Elderly people received music or standard care. RESULTS: The music group had lower depression scores, blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate after 1 month.

Field, T., Martinez, A., Nawrocki, T., Pickens, J., Fox, N. & Schanberg, S. (1998). Music shifts frontal EEG in depressed adolescents. Adolescence, 33, 109-116.

METHOD: This study investigated the effects of music on mood state and right frontal EEG activation associated with chronic depression. Fourteen chronically depressed female adolescents listened to rock music for a 23-minute session. These adolescents were compared with a control sample of chronically depressed female adolescents who were simply asked to sit and relax their minds and their muscles for the same time period. EEG was recorded during baseline, music, and post music for three minutes each, and saliva samples were collected before and after the session to determine the effects of the music on stress hormone (cortisol) levels. RESULTS: No group differences or changes were noted for observed or reported mood state. However, cortisol levels decreased and relative right frontal activation was significantly attenuated during and after the music procedure. It was concluded that music had positive effects on the physiological and biochemical measures even though observed and self-reported mood did not change.

Jones NA, Field T. (1999). Massage and music therapies attenuate frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Adolescence, 34, 529-534

METHOD: EEG asymmetry, specifically greater relative right frontal activation, is associated with negative affect. Depressed adults show stable patterns of this asymmetry. The present study assessed the effects of massage therapy and music therapy on frontal EEG asymmetry in depressed adolescents. Thirty adolescents with greater relative right frontal EEG activation and symptoms of depression were given either massage therapy (n = 14) or music therapy (n = 16). EEG was recorded for three-minute periods before, during, and after therapy. RESULTS: Frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated during and after the massage and music sessions.

Tornek A, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Diego M, Jones N. (2003). Music effects on EEG in intrusive and withdrawn mothers with depressive symptoms. Psychiatry, 66, 234-243.

METHOD: The EEG patterns of 48 intrusive and withdrawn mothers with depressive symptoms were assessed following a 20-minute music session to determine if the music had mood-altering effects. Half the mothers listened to classical music while half listened to rock music. Intrusive mothers were expected to have more positive responses and more symmetrical EEG following the calming classical music, while withdrawn mothers were expected to have a more positive response and symmetrical EEG following the energizing rock music. RESULTS: Although more positive EEGs were noted for rock music in both groups, only the withdrawn mothers showed a significant change in EEG toward symmetry following rock music, and only the intrusive mothers showed a decrease in cortisol levels following the rock music. Their State Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety levels also decreased, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) depressed mood levels decreased significantly for all four groups following music.

Hsu, W. C., & Lai, H. L. (2004). Effects of music on major depression in psychiatric inpatients. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18, 193-199.

METHOD: Patients with major depressive disorder were recruited and listened to their choice of music for two weeks. Depression was measured with the Zung’s Depression Scale before the study and at two weekly posttests. RESULTS: Music resulted in significantly lower depression scores, as depression decreased weekly, indicating a cumulative dose effect.


Remington, R. (2002). Calming music and hand massage with agitated elderly. Nursing Research, 51, 317-323.

METHOD: A four group, repeated measures experimental design was used to test the effect of a 10-minute exposure to either calming music, hand massage, or calming music and hand massage simultaneously, or no intervention on the frequency and type of agitated behaviors in nursing home residents with dementia. RESULTS: Each of the experimental interventions reduced agitation more than no intervention. The benefit was sustained and increased up to one hour following the intervention. Physically non aggressive behaviors decreased during each of the interventions.



Nakayama, H., Kikuta, F., & Takeda, H. (2009). A pilot study on effectiveness of music therapy in hospice in Japan. Journal of Music Therapy, 46, 160-172.


METHODS: Hospice inpatients, with terminal cancer, experienced 40-minute live session of songs of seasons and the participants' requests. RESULTS: Cortisol levels decreased after the therapy session. Anxiety and depression decreased.

Low Back Pain

Guetin, S., Coudeyre, E., Picot, M.C., Ginies, P., Graber-Duvernay, B., Ratsimba, D., Banbiervliet, W., Blayac, J. C., & Herisson, C. E. (2005). Effect of music therapy among hospitalized patients with chronic low back pain: A controlled, randomized trial. Annales de Readaptation et de Medecine Physique, 48, 217-224.

METHOD: Sixty-five patients with low back pain were randomized to receive on alternate months standardized physical therapy plus four music therapy sessions between day 1 and day 5 or standardized physical therapy alone. Scores for pain (as measured on a visual analogue scale, disability and anxiety and depression (as measured on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale) were collected on day 1, 5 and 12. Pain intensity was also evaluated before and after the music therapy sessions. RESULTS: The therapy sessions during a reduced pain, disability as anxiety and depression.

Mental Illness


Na, H.J., & Yang, S. (2009). Effects of listening to music on auditory hallucination and psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 39, 62-71.

METHODS: Psychoactive patients listened to music for one week. RESULTS: Auditory hallucinations decreased after listening to the music.


Engwall, M. & Duppils, G.S. (2009). Music as a nursing intervention for postoperative pain: a systematic review. Journal of Periasnesthesia Nursing, 24, 370-383.

REVIEW: A search for scientific articles was conducted using online databases. The results indicated a positive effect of music on postoperative pain. Four studies found that the use of analgesics was lower for the intervention groups.

Nguyen, T.N, Nilsson, S., Hellström, A.L., & Bengtson, A. (2010). Music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, 27, 146-155.

METHODS:  Children with leukemia, were randomly assigned to a music group or control group. RESULTS: The results showed lower pain scores and heart and respiratory rates in the music group during and after the lumbar puncture.

Shabanloei, R., Golchin, M., Esfahani, A., Dolatkhah, R., & Rasoulian, M. (2010). Effects of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Biopsy and Aspiration. Association of periOperative Registered Nurses Journal, 91, 746-751.

METHODS: Patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy and aspiration were randomly assigned: one group listened who listened to music during the procedure and one who did not. RESULTS: Participants who listened to music had lower state anxiety and pain levels.

Taghinejad, H., Delpisheh, A., & Suhrabi, Z. (2010). Comparison between massage and music therapies to relieve the severity of labor pain. Women’s Health, 6, 377-381.

METHODS: Women experiencing vaginal delivery were randomly assigned to two groups of either massage or music. RESULTS: Women in the massage therapy group had less pain.

Tan, X., Yowler, C.J., Super, D.M., & Fratianne, R.B. (2010). The Efficacy of Music Therapy Protocols for Decreasing Pain, Anxiety, and Muscle Tension Levels During Burn Dressing Changes: A Prospective Randomized Crossover Trial. Journal of Burn Care and Research, [epub ahead of print].

METHODS: Inpatients were randomized to receive music therapy and on control days, they received no music. RESULTS: The results showed a decrease in pain levels before, during and after dressing changes on days the patients received music therapy in contrast to control days. Music therapy was also associated with decreased anxiety and muscle tension levels during the dressing changes.

Postpartum Depression

Lee, S.M. (2010).The effects of music therapy on postpartum blues and maternal attachment of puerperal women. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 40, 60-68.

METHODS: Music therapy was provided for a group 40 min, once a day for 8 days. RESULTS: Postpartum blues was lower for the music therapy group and the degree of maternal attachment was higher.

Postoperative Period

Nilsson, U., Unosson, M. & Rawal, N. (2005). Stress reduction and analgesia in patients exposed to calming music postoperatively: A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 22, 96-102.

METHOD: Seventy-five patients undergoing open hernia repair as day care surgery were randomly allocated to three groups: intraoperative music, postoperative music and silence. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater decrease in the level of cortisol in the postoperative music group vs. the control group after 2 h in the post anesthesia care unit. The postoperative music group had less anxiety and pain and required less morphine after 1 hour compared with the control group. In the postoperative music group the total requirement of morphine was significantly lower than in the control group.

Tse, M. M., Chan, M. F., & Benzie, I. F. (2005). The effect of music therapy on postoperative pain, heartrate, systolic blood pressure and analgesic use following anal surgery. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19, 21-29.

METHOD: Fifty-seven patients were assigned to either an experimental or a control group. Music was played intermittently to members of the experimental group during the first 24 hour postoperative period. Pain intensity was measured using the Pain Verbal Rating Scales, RESULTS: Significant decreases in pain intensity over time were found in the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, the experimental group had a lower systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and took fewer oral analgesics for pain. These findings suggest that music therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic approach for postoperative pain management.



Yang, M., Li, L., Zhu, H., Alexander, I.M., Liu, S., Zhou, W., & Ren, X. (2009). Music therapy to relieve anxiety in pregnant women on bedrest: A randomized,controlled trial. MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing, 34, 316-323.


METHODS: Women in the experimental group received music therapy for 30 minutes on 3 consecutive days. Usual care participants had a 30-minute rest on 3 consecutive days. RESULTS: Anxiety levels decreased and physiological responses improved in the intervention group.


Robb, S.L. (2003). Music interventions and group participation skills of preschoolers with visual impairments: raising questions about music, arousal, and attention. Journal of Music Therapy, 40, 266-282.

METHOD: Children between the ages of 4 and 6 years participated in 4, 30-minute instructional sessions. Two instructional sessions were music-based and two were play-based with the 4 sessions equally distributed across a 2-week period. RESULTS: Attentive behavior was significantly higher during music based-sessions.

Preterm Infants


Keith, D.R., Russell, K., & Weaver, B.S. (2009). The effects of music listening on inconsolable crying in premature infants. Journal of Music Therapy, 46, 191-203.


METHODS: Premature infants classified as inconsolable received a music listening intervention, alternating with days on which no intervention was provided. RESULTS: There was a reduction in the frequency and duration of inconsolable crying, as well as improved physiological measures including heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, and mean arterial pressure.

Walworth, D.D. (2009). Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development. Journal of Music Therapy, 46, 32-52.


METHODS: Parent-infant dyads attended developmental music groups or a control condition. RESULTS:  This study demonstrates the first findings of positive effects of developmental music groups on social behaviors for both premature and full term infants under 2 years old.


Lubetzky, R., Mimouni, F.B., Dollberg, S., Reifen, R., Ashbel, G., & Mandel, D. (2010). Effect of music by Mozart on energy expenditure in growing preterm infants. Pediatrics, 125, 24-28.

METHODS: Preterm infants were randomly assigned to a 30-minute period of Mozart music or no music on 2 consecutive days. Metabolic measurements were performed by indirect calorimetry. RESULTS: Resting energy expenditure (REE) was similar during the first 10-minute period of both randomization groups. During the next 10-minute period, infants who were exposed to music had a significantly lower REE.


Lai, H.L. & Good M. (2005). Music improves sleep quality in older adults. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49, 234-44.

METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was used with a two-group repeated measures design. Sixty people aged 60–83 years with difficulty in sleeping were recruited through community leaders and screened using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Participants listened to their choice among six 45-minute sedative music tapes at bedtime for 3 weeks. There were five types of Western and one of Chinese music. RESULTS: Music resulted in significantly better sleep quality in the experimental group, as well as significantly better components of sleep quality: better perceived sleep quality, longer sleep duration, greater sleep efficiency, shorter sleep latency, less sleep disturbance and less daytime dysfunction. Sleep improved weekly, indicating a cumulative dose effect.

de Niet, G., Tiemens, B., Lendemeijer, B., & Hutschemaekers, G. (2009). Music-assisted relaxation to improve sleep quality: meta-analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65, 1356-1364.

METHODS: Data were extracted from five randomized controlled trials with six treatment conditions. RESULTS: Music-assisted relaxation had a moderate effect on the sleep quality of patients with sleep complaints.


Spinal Anesthesia


Lin, P.C., Lin, M.L., Huang, L.C., Hsu, H.C., & Lin, C.C. (2011). Music therapy for patients receiving spine surgery. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20, 960-968.

METHODS: Patients receiving spinal surgery listened to music from the evening before surgery to the second day after surgery and were compared to a control group. Anxiety and pain were measured with visual analogue scales. RESULTS: The music group had lower scores for both anxiety and pain. One hour after surgery, the mean blood pressure was significantly lower in the music group than the control group.

Maeyama, A., Kodaka, M., & Miyao, H. (2009). Effect of the music-therapy under spinal anesthesia. Masui, 58, 684,691.


METHODS: Patients scheduled for spinal anesthesia, were randomly assigned to a music group, or control. RESULTS: Music-therapy reduced the bispectral index score (BIS) and state anxiety during spinal anesthesia.



Forsblom, A., Laitinen, S., Särkämö, T., & Tervaniemi, M. (2009).Therapeutic role of music listening in stroke rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 426-430.


METHODS: Stroke patients listened to music during stroke rehabilitation. RESULTS: Music relaxed, improved mood, and provided both physical and mental activation during the early stages of recovery from stroke.




Wu, S.J., & Chou, F.H. (2008). The effectiveness of music therapy in reducing physiological and psychological anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Hu Li Za Zhi, 55, 35-44.


METHODS: Mechanically ventilated patients participated in a 30-minute music therapy session, while control group patients were asked to rest. RESULTS: Patients in the music group showed decreased anxiety, diastolic pressure, mean arterial pressure and breathing rate.